Literally speaking, the word ‘risk’ is the possibility of a number of outcomes resulting from a given action. In the investment world, the concept of ‘risk’ can differ drastically to everyday Investors’ based on their perception of ‘risk’. There are a number of quantitative measures to determine the risk level associated with a given investment, and the industry-standard measure usually identifies risk as the degree of variation associated with the returns of investments, which is known as the concept of volatility.
Volatility is defined as the standard deviation of an investment’s return over a given period of time, this does not measure the direction of price changes, but merely their dispersion around the average level. An investment with higher volatility will have larger swings in value over the given period of time. For instance a portfolio with an expected average return of 10% per annum with annualised volatility of 6%, investors can expect the portfolio to generate a one-year return ranging from -2% to 22% (approximately 95% of the time), assuming the portfolio return is normally distributed.
Another useful quantitative indicator for risk measure is maximum drawdown (MDD), which is defined as the maximum loss from a historical peak to a historical bottom of a portfolio for a given period of time. MDD is expressed in percentage term and is essentially the historical worst case scenario for the investment over the given time frame. This measure is particularly useful for measuring downside risk for an investment.
However, if the interpretation of ‘risk level’ for an investment or portfolio relies solely on quantitative measures, such as volatility or MDD, this can result in challenging, or even misleading conversations between investment advisors and their customers regarding investment strategy design and client profiling. This is because investors sometimes do not simply evaluate their risk in narrow mathematical terms, but rather they are likely to consider risk as the prospect of an undesirable investment outcome, such as a financial loss or failure to achieve their investment objective.
There are additional considerations which can help to highlight aspects of investment risk:
Inflation risk means that in a normal inflationary environment, the purchasing power of cash held in investor’s pockets would slowly erode over time. For example, when the investor put his/her money into a saving vehicle that generates a below-inflation return (after tax is paid), the real purchasing power of their savings is falling.
This is the risk of failing to meet a long-term investment target which could occur if an investor does not take on sufficient risk in the bid for getting higher rewards, or he or she invests in too many high-risk assets causing their portfolio to lose too much value.
These refer to factors such as growth, employment, elections and international conflict etc., which are key drivers of investment performance, but at the same might correlate with job loss or income reduction. These risk factors are generally very difficult to fully mitigate for a given portfolio due to their unpredictable nature, however their impact can be reduced through a carefully constructed investment strategy. The worst case of income reduction and deep losses on the investment side at the same time would be an unbearable risk.
This risk describes the investor’s ability to buy or sell their investment in the market. This factor could substantially impact the portfolio’s return. For example, in the market where liquidity is poor, investor’s positive investment return can be greatly offset by their inability to liquidate the assets at a desired price level, due to the poor width and depth of the market. Moreover, liquidity could be interpreted as funding liquidity too. If the investor has a loan to be repaid or an unpredictable payment and his/her investments are locked into an investment, there is a high risk of fire sale of investments (at inefficient prices) or personal legal issues for the payments miss.